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 3. Person Plural Präsens Indikativ des Verbs sein. sind ist eine flektierte Form von sein. Die gesamte Konjugation findest du auf der Seite. EtymologyEdit. From Old English sind, plural present indicative of wesan (“to be”). sein VERB intr +sein. Verbtabelle anzeigen. 1. sein: sein · essere. Übersetzung Deutsch-Englisch für sind im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Traduzioni in contesto per "Sind" in tedesco-italiano da Reverso Context: Sind nur für die Damen günstiger. Definition, Rechtschreibung, Synonyme und Grammatik von 'sind' auf Duden online nachschlagen. Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. Vergessen wir nicht, dass viele Handelsbetriebe Kleinbetriebe sind, und die meisten davon familiengeführt“, unterstreicht Moser. Der hds.
EtymologyEdit. From Old English sind, plural present indicative of wesan (“to be”). sein VERB intr +sein. Verbtabelle anzeigen. 1. sein: sein · essere. SIND. likes · 93 talking about this. Instagram: slowind.eusindsindsind/.
Agriculture is the basis of the economy. Cotton, wheat , rice , sugarcane, corn maize , millet, and oilseeds are the major crops in the province.
There are also many orchards yielding mangoes, dates, bananas, and other fruits. Livestock raising is also important, with cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goats the main animals kept.
There are also plants producing steel and automobiles. Two major highways, running along the east and west banks of the Indus River respectively, traverse the province from south to north.
The Indus and some of its channels have served as the main waterways since time immemorial. These waterways are now mainly used for the transport of grain and other agricultural products.
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Inscriptions of the western Indian dynasties speak of controlling the tide of the mleccha , which has been interpreted in this case to mean the Arabs; some Indian sources use the term yavana.
The conquest of Sind marked the easternmost extent of Arab territorial control. It was decided that Burma should be a separate colony from British India.
History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox! Email address. There was a large level of contact between all the janapadas, with descriptions being given of trading caravans, movement of students from universities, and itineraries of princes.
It is often mentioned alongside the Sindhu Kingdom. Sindhu was a kingdom of ancient India mentioned in the epic Mahabharata and in the Harivamsa Purana.
It stretched along the banks of river Sindhu Indus in ancient India , in modern Pakistan. It is often mentioned alongside the Sauvira Kingdom.
It is believed that Sindhu kingdom was founded by Vrsadarbh, one of sons of Sivi. According to the Glimpses of Ancient Sindh , authored by Mirchandani, [ citation needed ] its capital was known as Vrsadarbhpura, and Tulsianis, later known as Sindhu, was located at or near the location of the present town of Mithankot in southern Punjab.
The inhabitants of the kingdoms were called Sindhus or Saindhavas. Achaemenid empire may have controlled parts of present day Sindh as part of the province of Hindush.
The territory may have corresponded to the area covering the lower and central Indus basin present day Sindh and the southern Punjab regions of Pakistan.
These areas remained under Persian control until the invasion by Alexander. Alternatively, some authors consider that Hindush may have been located in the Punjab area.
Alexander conquered parts of Sindh after Punjab for few years. Alexander's death gave rise to Seleucid Empire which was defeated by the Mauryan empire.
The early life of Chandragupta Maurya is not clear. Kautilya took a young Chandragupta to the University at Taxila and enrolled him in order to educate him in the arts, sciences, logic, mathematics, warfare, and administration.
Chankya's main task was to liberate India from Greek rule. With the help of the small Janapadas of Punjab and Sindh, he had gone on to conquer much of the North West.
He then defeated the Nanda rulers in Pataliputra to capture the throne. Chandragupta Maurya fought Alexander's successor in the east, Seleucus I Nicator , when the latter invaded.
In a peace treaty, Seleucus ceded all territories west of the Indus River and offered a marriage, including a portion of Bactria, while Chandragupta granted Seleucus elephants.
Following a century of Mauryan rule which ended by BCE, the region came under the Greco-Bactrians based in what is today Afghanistan and these rulers would also convert to and proliferate Buddhism in the region.
The Buddhist city of Siraj-ji-Takri is located along the western limestone terraces of the Rohri Hills in the Sukkur district of Upper Sindh, along the road that leads to Sorah.
Its ruins are still visible on the top of three different mesas, in the form of stone and mud-brick walls and small mounds, whilst other architectural remains were observed along the slopes of the hills in the s.
Kushans ruled Sindh and called the land ''Scythia'' and in this period Buddhist developed in the region.
Kahu-jo-Daro stupa at mirpurkhas exhibits presence of buddhist practices in Sindh. Its king is said to have been subdued by Harsha 's father Prabhakaravardhana died c.
The Rai dynasty of Sindh at its height of power ruled much of the Northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent. The influence of the Rais extended from Kashmir in the east, Makran and Debal port modern Karachi in the west, Surat port in the south, and the Kandahar , Sulaiman , Ferdan and Kikanan hills in the north.
Harshacharitta , a biography written by Banabhatta mentions King Harsha badly defeated the ruler of Sindh and took possession of his fortunes.
Most of the information about Sindh's Hindu Brahman dynasty comes from the Chach Nama , a historical account of the Chach-Brahman dynasty.
The Brahman dynasty were successors of the Rai dynasty. After the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad , the Arab expansion towards the east reached the Sindh region beyond Persia.
An initial expedition in the region launched because of the Sindhi pirate attacks on Arabs in —12, failed.
The first clash with the Hindu kings of Sindh took place in 15 A. Another brother of his, al-Mughira, was given the command of the expedition against Debal.
However, the Chach Nama states that the raid of Debal was defeated and its governor killed the leader of the raids.
These raids were thought to be triggered by a later pirate attack on Umayyad ships. I swear, by Allah that if they had been smitten, I would have taken the equivalent in men from your families.
In , when Mohammed Bin Qasim invaded Sindh with cavalry while also receiving reinforcements, Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf instructed him not to spare anyone in Debal.
The historian al-Baladhuri stated that after conquest of Debal, Qasim kept slaughtering its inhabitants for three days.
The custodians of the Buddhist stupa were killed and the temple was destroyed. Qasim gave a quarter of the city to Muslims and built a mosque there.
No mercy was shown and the inhabitants were accordingly thus slaughtered for three days, with its temple desecrated and women taking shelter there enslaved.
At Raor , fighting men were massacred with their families enslaved. The massacre at Brahamanabad has various accounts of 6, to 26, inhabitants slaughtered.
During the capture of one of the forts of Sindh, the women committed the jauhar and burnt themselves to death according to the Chach Nama. Rizvi citing the Chach Nama , considers that conversion to Islam by political pressure began with Qasim's conquests.
The Chach Nama has one instance of conversion, that of a slave from Debal converted at Qasim's hands. The caliph ordered Qasim to be sewn up in hide of a cow and died of suffocation.
The Habbari dynasty ruled the Abbasid province of Greater Sindh from to The region became semi-independent under the Arab ruler Aziz al-Habbari in CE, though nominally remaining part of the Caliphate.
Some of the territory in Sindh found itself under raids from the Turkic ruler, Mahmud Ghaznavi in , who ended Arab rule of Sindh.
The Soomra dynasty was a Sindhi Rajput that ruled between early 11th century and late s - initially as vassals of the Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad.
Sindhi culture experienced a revival during Soomra rule, while Arab language and traditions continued to deeply impact Sindh. Under their rule, Shia Ismailism and Sunni Sufism became widespread in Sindh and coexisted peacefully alongside one another.
The Samma dynasty was a Rajput power that ruled over Sindh, parts of Kutch , parts of Punjab and Balochistan in the Indian subcontinent from c.
Under the Samma dynasty, Sindh was a vassal of the Delhi sultanate , following the conquest by Firuz Shah Tughlaq , the Turkic ruler of Delhi in — Sindh remained a vassal of Delhi until the rule of the Turkic Sayyid dynasty in Delhi.
The Samma dynasty has left its mark in Sindh with magnificent structures including the Makli Necropolis of its royals in Thatta.
The Arghun dynasty were a dynasty of either Mongol ,  Turkic or Turco-Mongol ethnicity,  who ruled over the area between southern Afghanistan , and Sindh from the late 15th century to the early 16th century.
They claimed their descent and name from Ilkhanid-Mongol Arghun Khan. Arghun rule was divided into two branches: the Arghun branch of Dhu'l-Nun Beg Arghun that ruled until , and the Tarkhan branch of Muhammad 'Isa Tarkhan that ruled until Dynasties came and went for several hundred years until the late 16th century, when Sindh was brought into the Mughal Empire by Akbar , himself born in the Hindu Rajput kingdom of Umerkot in Sindh.
Mughal rule from their provincial capital of Thatta was to last in lower Sindh until the early 18th century.
Upper Sindh was a different picture, however, with the indigenous Kalhora dynasty holding power, consolidating their rule until the midth century, when the Persian sacking of the Mughal throne in Delhi allowed them to grab the rest of Sindh.
Akbar, unlike his predecessors, was renowned for his religious freedom. Early in his reign in , the emperor abolished taxes on Hindu pilgrims and allowed Hindu temples to be built and repaired.
In he abolished the jizya , the tax paid by all non-Muslims. The Kalhora dynasty was a Sunni dynasty based in Sindh. He founded a new city Khudabad after he obtained from Aurangzeb a grant of the track between the Indus and the Nara and made it the capital of his kingdom.
Thenceforth, Mian Yar Muhammad became one of the imperial agents or governors. Later he extended his rule to Sehwan and Bukkur and became sole ruler of Northern and central Sindh except Thatto which was still under the administrative control of Mughal Empire.
The British conquered Sindh in General Charles Napier is said to have reported victory to the Governor General with a one-word telegram, namely "Peccavi" — or "I have sinned" Latin.
The British had two objectives in their rule of Sindh: the consolidation of British rule and the use of Sindh as a market for British products and a source of revenue and raw materials.
With the appropriate infrastructure in place, the British hoped to utilise Sindh for its economic potential.
The British incorporated Sindh, some years later after annexing it, into the Bombay Presidency. Distance from the provincial capital, Bombay, led to grievances that Sindh was neglected in contrast to other parts of the Presidency.
The merger of Sindh into Punjab province was considered from time from time but was turned down because of British disagreement and Sindhi opposition, both from Muslims and Hindus, to being annexed to Punjab.
The British desired to increase their profitability from Sindh and carried out extensive work on the irrigation system in Sindh, for example, the Jamrao Canal project.
However, the local Sindhis were described as both eager and lazy and for this reason, the British authorities encouraged the immigration of Punjabi peasants into Sindh as they were deemed more hard-working.
Punjabi migrations to Sindh paralleled the further development of Sindh's irrigation system in the early 20th century. In his backdrop, desire for a separate administrative status for Sindh grew.
At the annual session of the Indian National Congress in , a Sindhi Hindu put forward the demand for Sindh's separation from the Bombay Presidency on the grounds of Sindh's unique cultural character.
This reflected the desire of Sindh's predominantly Hindu commercial class to free itself from competing with the more powerful Bombay's business interests.
Although Sindh had a cleaner record of communal harmony than other parts of India, the province's Muslim elite and emerging Muslim middle class demanded separation of Sindh from Bombay Presidency as a safeguard for their own interests.
Sindhi Hindus were seen as representing the interests of Bombay instead of the majority of Sindhi Muslims. Sindhi Hindus, for the most part, opposed the separation of Sindh from Bombay.
Scholars have discussed that it was found that Hindu practices in Sindh differed from orthodox Hinduism in the rest of India.
Hinduism in Sindh was to a large extent influenced by Islam, Sikhism and Sufism. Sindh's religious syncretism was a result of Sufism.